Configuration and defaults¶
This section lists the available configuration options and constraints along with their default values. Defaults are automatically applied in constraints whenever there is no user input for a particular value.
Model configuration¶
Setting 
Default 
Comments 

calliope_version 
Calliope framework version this model is intended for 

group_share 
{} 
Optional settings for the group_share constraint  deprecated and will be removed in v0.7.0 
name 
Model name 

random_seed 
Seed for random number generator used during clustering 

reserve_margin 
{} 
Percarrier systemwide reserve margins 
subset_time 
Subset of timesteps as a twoelement list giving the range, e.g. [‘20050101’, ‘20050105’], or a single string, e.g. ‘200501’ 

time 
{} 
Optional settings to adjust time resolution, see Time resolution adjustment for the available options 
timeseries_data_path 
Path to time series data 

timeseries_data 
Dict of dataframes with time series data (when passing in dicts rather than YAML files to Model constructor) 

timeseries_dateformat 
%Y%m%d %H:%M:%S 
Timestamp format of all time series data when read from file 
file_allowed 
[‘clustering_func’, ‘energy_con’, ‘energy_eff’, ‘energy_prod’, ‘energy_ramping’, ‘export’, ‘force_resource’, ‘om_con’, ‘om_prod’, ‘parasitic_eff’, ‘resource’, ‘resource_eff’, ‘storage_loss’, ‘carrier_ratios’] 
List of configuration options allowed to specify “file=” to load timeseries data. This can be updated if you’re adding a new custom constraint that requires a newly defined parameter to be a timeseries. If updating existing parameters, you can expect existing constraints to not change behaviour or to break on being constructed. ## # Base technology groups ## 
Run configuration¶
Setting 
Default 
Comments 

backend 
pyomo 
Backend to use to build and solve the model. As of v0.6.0, only pyomo is available 
bigM 
1000000000.0 
Used for unmet demand, but should be of a similar order of magnitude as the largest cost that the model could achieve. Too high and the model will not converge 
cyclic_storage 
True 
If true, storage in the last timestep of the timeseries is considered to be the ‘previous timestep’ in the first timestep of the timeseries 
ensure_feasibility 
False 
If true, unmet_demand will be a decision variable, to account for an ability to meet demand with the available supply. If False and a mismatch occurs, the optimisation will fail due to infeasibility 
mode 
plan 
Which mode to run the model in: ‘plan’, ‘operation’ or ‘spores’ 
objective_options 
{} 
Arguments to pass to objective function. If costbased objective function in use, should include ‘cost_class’ and ‘sense’ (maximize/minimize) 
objective 
minmax_cost_optimization 
Name of internal objective function to use, currently only min/max costbased optimisation is available 
operation 
{} 
Settings for operational mode 
spores_options 
{} 
settings for SPORES (spatiallyexplicit, practically optimal results) mode 
relax_constraint 
{} 
Enable relaxing some equality constraints to be min/max constraints. The extent of relaxation is given as a fraction. 
save_logs 
Directory into which to save logs and temporary files. Also turns on symbolic solver labels in the Pyomo backend 

solver_io 
What method the Pyomo backend should use to communicate with the solver 

solver_options 
A list of options, which are passed on to the chosen solver, and are therefore solverdependent 

solver 
cbc 
Which solver to use 
zero_threshold 
1e10 
Any value coming out of the backend that is smaller than this threshold (due to floating point errors, probably) will be set to zero 
Pertech constraints¶
The following table lists all available technology constraint settings and their default values. All of these can be set by tech_identifier.constraints.constraint_name
, e.g. nuclear.constraints.energy_cap.max
.
Setting 
Default 
Name 
Unit 
Comments 

carrier_ratios 
Carrier ratios 
fraction 
Ratio of summed output of carriers in [‘out_2’, ‘out_3’] / [‘in_2’, ‘in_3’] to the summed output of carriers in ‘out’ / ‘in’. given in a nested dictionary. 

charge_rate 
Charge rate 
hour ^{1} 
(do not use, replaced by energy_cap_per_storage_cap_max) ratio of maximum charge/discharge (kW) for a given maximum storage capacity (kWh). 

energy_cap_per_storage_cap_min 
0 
Minimum energy capacity per storage capacity 
hour ^{1} 
ratio of minimum charge/discharge (kW) for a given storage capacity (kWh). 
energy_cap_per_storage_cap_max 
inf 
Maximum energy capacity per storage capacity 
hour ^{1} 
ratio of maximum charge/discharge (kW) for a given storage capacity (kWh). 
energy_cap_per_storage_cap_equals 
Tie energy capacity to storage capacity 
hour ^{1} 

energy_cap_equals 
Specific installed energy capacity 
kW 
fixes maximum/minimum if decision variables 

energy_cap_equals_systemwide 
Systemwide specific installed energy capacity 
kW 
fixes the sum to a maximum/minimum, for a particular technology, of the decision variables 

energy_cap_max 
inf 
Maximum installed energy capacity 
kW 
Limits decision variables 
energy_cap_max_systemwide 
inf 
Systemwide maximum installed energy capacity 
kW 
Limits the sum to a maximum/minimum, for a particular technology, of the decision variables 
energy_cap_min 
0 
Minimum installed energy capacity 
kW 
Limits decision variables 
energy_cap_min_use 
0 
Minimum carrier production 
fraction 
Set to a value between 0 and 1 to force minimum carrier production as a fraction of the technology maximum energy capacity. If nonzero and technology is not defined by 
energy_cap_per_unit 
Energy capacity per purchased unit 
kW/unit 
Set the capacity of each integer unit of a technology purchased 

energy_cap_scale 
1.0 
Energy capacity scale 
float 
Scale all 
energy_con 
False 
Energy consumption 
boolean 
Allow this technology to consume energy from the carrier (static boolean, or from file as timeseries). 
energy_eff 
1.0 
Energy efficiency 
fraction 
conversion efficiency (static, or from file as timeseries), from 
energy_eff_per_distance 
1.0 
Energy efficiency per distance 
fraction/distance 
Set as value between 1 (no loss) and 0 (all energy lost). 
energy_prod 
False 
Energy production 
boolean 
Allow this technology to supply energy to the carrier (static boolean, or from file as timeseries). 
energy_ramping 
Ramping rate 
fraction / hour 
Set to 

export_cap 
inf 
Export capacity 
kW 
Maximum allowed export of produced energy carrier for a technology. 
export_carrier 
Export carrier 
N/A 
Name of carrier to be exported. Must be an output carrier of the technology 

force_asynchronous_prod_con 
False 
Force asynchronous production consumption 
boolean 
If True, carrier_prod and carrier_con cannot both occur in the same timestep 
force_resource 
False 
Force resource 
boolean 
Forces this technology to use all available 
lifetime 
Technology lifetime 
years 
Must be defined if fixed capital costs are defined. A reasonable value for many technologies is around 2025 years. 

one_way 
False 
One way 
boolean 
Forces a transmission technology to only move energy in one direction on the link, in this case from default_location_from to default_location_to 
parasitic_eff 
1.0 
Plant parasitic efficiency 
fraction 
Additional losses as energy gets transferred from the plant to the carrier (static, or from file as timeseries), e.g. due to plant parasitic consumption 
resource 
0 
Available resource 
kWh  kWh/m^{2}  kWh/kW 
Maximum available resource (static, or from file as timeseries). Unit dictated by 
resource_area_equals 
Specific installed resource area 
m^{2} 

resource_area_max 
inf 
Maximum usable resource area 
m^{2} 
If set to a finite value, restricts the usable area of the technology to this value. 
resource_area_min 
0 
Minimum usable resource area 
m^{2} 

resource_area_per_energy_cap 
Resource area per energy capacity 
m:sup: 2/kW 
If set, forces 

resource_cap_equals 
Specific installed resource consumption capacity 
kW 
overrides 

resource_cap_equals_energy_cap 
False 
Resource capacity equals energy cpacity 
boolean 
If true, 
resource_cap_max 
inf 
Maximum installed resource consumption capacity 
kW 

resource_cap_min 
0 
Minimum installed resource consumption capacity 
kW 

resource_eff 
1.0 
Resource efficiency 
fraction 
Efficiency (static, or from file as timeseries) in capturing resource before it reaches storage (if storage is present) or conversion to carrier. 
resource_min_use 
0 
Minimum resource consumption 
fraction 
Set to a value between 0 and 1 to force minimum resource consumption for production technologies 
resource_scale 
1.0 
Resource scale 
fraction 
Scale resource (either static value or all values in timeseries) by this value 
resource_unit 
energy 
Resource unit 
N/A 
Sets the unit of 
storage_cap_equals 
Specific storage capacity 
kWh 
If not defined, 

storage_cap_max 
inf 
Maximum storage capacity 
kWh 
If not defined, 
storage_cap_min 
0 
Minimum storage capacity 
kWh 

storage_cap_per_unit 
Storage capacity per purchased unit 
kWh/unit 
Set the storage capacity of each integer unit of a technology purchased. 

storage_discharge_depth 
0 
Storage depth of discharge 
fraction 
Defines the minimum level of storage state of charge, as a fraction of total storage capacity 
storage_initial 
0 
Initial storage level 
fraction 
Set stored energy in device at the first timestep, as a fraction of total storage capacity 
storage_loss 
0 
Storage loss rate 
fraction/hour 
rate of storage loss per hour (static, or from file as timeseries), used to calculate lost stored energy as 
units_equals 
Specific number of purchased units 
integer 
Turns the model from LP to MILP. 

units_equals_systemwide 
Systemwide specific installed energy capacity 
kW 
fixes the sum to a specific value, for a particular technology, of the decision variables 

units_max 
Maximum number of purchased units 
integer 
Turns the model from LP to MILP. 

units_max_systemwide 
inf 
Systemwide maximum installed energy capacity 
kW 
Limits the sum to a maximum/minimum, for a particular technology, of the decision variables 
units_min 
Minimum number of purchased units 
integer 
Turns the model from LP to MILP. 
Pertech costs¶
These are all the available costs, which are set to \(0\) by default for every defined cost class. Costs are set by tech_identifier.costs.cost_class.cost_name
, e.g. nuclear.costs.monetary.energy_cap
.
Setting 
Default 
Name 
Unit 
Comments 

energy_cap 
0 
Cost of energy capacity 
kW _{gross} ^{1} 

energy_cap_per_distance 
0 
Cost of energy capacity, per unit distance 
kW _{gross} ^{1} / distance 
Applied to transmission links only 
export 
0 
Carrier export cost 
kWh ^{1} 
Usually used in the negative sense, as a subsidy. 
interest_rate 
0 
Interest rate 
fraction 
Used when computing levelized costs 
om_annual 
0 
Yearly O&M costs 
kW _{energy_cap} ^{1} 

om_annual_investment_fraction 
0 
Fractional yearly O&M costs 
fraction / total investment 

om_con 
0 
Carrier consumption cost 
kWh ^{1} 
Applied to carrier consumption of a technology 
om_prod 
0 
Carrier production cost 
kWh ^{1} 
Applied to carrier production of a technology 
purchase 
0 
Purchase cost 
unit ^{1} 
Triggers a binary variable for that technology to say that it has been purchased or is applied to integer variable 
resource_area 
0 
Cost of resource area 
m^{2} 

resource_cap 
0 
Cost of resource consumption capacity 
kW ^{1} 

storage_cap 
0 
Cost of storage capacity 
kWh ^{1} 
Technology depreciation settings apply when calculating levelized costs. The interest rate and life times must be set for each technology with investment costs.
Group constraints¶
See Group constraints for a full listing of available group constraints.
Abstract base technology groups¶
Technologies must always define a parent, and this can either be one of the predefined abstract base technology groups or a userdefined group (see Using tech_groups to group configuration). The predefined groups are:
supply
: Supplies energy to a carrier, has a positive resource.supply_plus
: Supplies energy to a carrier, has a positive resource. Additional possible constraints, including efficiencies and storage, distinguish this fromsupply
.demand
: Demands energy from a carrier, has a negative resource.storage
: Stores energy.transmission
: Transmits energy from one location to another.conversion
: Converts energy from one carrier to another.conversion_plus
: Converts energy from one or more carrier(s) to one or more different carrier(s).
A technology inherits the configuration that its parent group specifies (which, in turn, may inherit from its own parent).
Note
The identifiers of the abstract base tech groups are reserved and cannot be used for userdefined technologies. However, you can amend an abstract base technology group for example by a lifetime attribute that will be in effect for all technologies derived from that group (see Using tech_groups to group configuration).
The following lists the predefined base tech groups and the defaults they provide.
supply¶
Default constraints provided by the parent tech group:
essentials:
parent:
constraints:
energy_prod: true
resource: inf
resource_unit: energy
costs: {}
Required constraints, allowed constraints, and allowed costs:
required_constraints: []
allowed_constraints:
 energy_cap_equals
 energy_cap_equals_systemwide
 energy_cap_max
 energy_cap_max_systemwide
 energy_cap_min
 energy_cap_min_use
 energy_cap_per_unit
 energy_cap_scale
 energy_eff
 energy_prod
 energy_ramping
 export_cap
 export_carrier
 force_resource
 lifetime
 resource
 resource_area_equals
 resource_area_max
 resource_area_min
 resource_area_per_energy_cap
 resource_min_use
 resource_scale
 resource_unit
 units_equals
 units_equals_systemwide
 units_max
 units_max_systemwide
 units_min
allowed_costs:
 depreciation_rate
 energy_cap
 export
 interest_rate
 om_annual
 om_annual_investment_fraction
 om_con
 om_prod
 purchase
 resource_area
supply_plus¶
Default constraints provided by the parent tech group:
essentials:
parent:
constraints:
energy_prod: true
resource: inf
resource_eff: 1.0
resource_unit: energy
costs: {}
Required constraints, allowed constraints, and allowed costs:
required_constraints: []
allowed_constraints:
 charge_rate
 energy_cap_per_storage_cap_min
 energy_cap_per_storage_cap_max
 energy_cap_per_storage_cap_equals
 energy_cap_equals
 energy_cap_equals_systemwide
 energy_cap_max
 energy_cap_max_systemwide
 energy_cap_min
 energy_cap_min_use
 energy_cap_per_unit
 energy_cap_scale
 energy_eff
 energy_prod
 energy_ramping
 export_cap
 export_carrier
 force_resource
 lifetime
 parasitic_eff
 resource
 resource_area_equals
 resource_area_max
 resource_area_min
 resource_area_per_energy_cap
 resource_cap_equals
 resource_cap_equals_energy_cap
 resource_cap_max
 resource_cap_min
 resource_eff
 resource_min_use
 resource_scale
 resource_unit
 storage_cap_equals
 storage_cap_max
 storage_cap_min
 storage_cap_per_unit
 storage_initial
 storage_loss
 units_equals
 units_equals_systemwide
 units_max
 units_max_systemwide
 units_min
allowed_costs:
 depreciation_rate
 energy_cap
 export
 interest_rate
 om_annual
 om_annual_investment_fraction
 om_con
 om_prod
 purchase
 resource_area
 resource_cap
 storage_cap
demand¶
Default constraints provided by the parent tech group:
essentials:
parent:
constraints:
energy_con: true
force_resource: true
resource_unit: energy
costs: {}
Required constraints, allowed constraints, and allowed costs:
required_constraints:
 resource
allowed_constraints:
 energy_con
 force_resource
 resource
 resource_area_equals
 resource_scale
 resource_unit
allowed_costs:
 om_con
storage¶
Default constraints provided by the parent tech group:
essentials:
parent:
constraints:
energy_con: true
energy_prod: true
storage_cap_max: inf
costs: {}
Required constraints, allowed constraints, and allowed costs:
required_constraints: []
allowed_constraints:
 charge_rate
 energy_cap_per_storage_cap_min
 energy_cap_per_storage_cap_max
 energy_cap_per_storage_cap_equals
 energy_cap_equals
 energy_cap_equals_systemwide
 energy_cap_max
 energy_cap_max_systemwide
 energy_cap_min
 energy_cap_min_use
 energy_cap_per_unit
 energy_cap_scale
 energy_con
 energy_eff
 energy_prod
 energy_ramping
 export_cap
 export_carrier
 force_asynchronous_prod_con
 lifetime
 storage_cap_equals
 storage_cap_max
 storage_cap_min
 storage_cap_per_unit
 storage_initial
 storage_loss
 storage_time_max
 storage_discharge_depth
 units_equals
 units_equals_systemwide
 units_max
 units_max_systemwide
 units_min
allowed_costs:
 depreciation_rate
 energy_cap
 export
 interest_rate
 om_annual
 om_annual_investment_fraction
 om_prod
 purchase
 storage_cap
transmission¶
Default constraints provided by the parent tech group:
essentials:
parent:
constraints:
energy_con: true
energy_prod: true
costs: {}
Required constraints, allowed constraints, and allowed costs:
required_constraints: []
allowed_constraints:
 energy_cap_equals
 energy_cap_min
 energy_cap_max
 energy_cap_per_unit
 energy_cap_scale
 energy_con
 energy_eff
 energy_eff_per_distance
 energy_prod
 force_asynchronous_prod_con
 lifetime
 one_way
allowed_costs:
 depreciation_rate
 energy_cap
 energy_cap_per_distance
 interest_rate
 om_annual
 om_annual_investment_fraction
 om_prod
 purchase
 purchase_per_distance
conversion¶
Default constraints provided by the parent tech group:
essentials:
parent:
constraints:
energy_con: true
energy_prod: true
costs: {}
Required constraints, allowed constraints, and allowed costs:
required_constraints: []
allowed_constraints:
 energy_cap_equals
 energy_cap_equals_systemwide
 energy_cap_max
 energy_cap_max_systemwide
 energy_cap_min
 energy_cap_min_use
 energy_cap_per_unit
 energy_cap_scale
 energy_con
 energy_eff
 energy_prod
 energy_ramping
 export_cap
 export_carrier
 lifetime
 units_equals
 units_equals_systemwide
 units_max
 units_max_systemwide
 units_min
allowed_costs:
 depreciation_rate
 energy_cap
 export
 interest_rate
 om_annual
 om_annual_investment_fraction
 om_con
 om_prod
 purchase
conversion_plus¶
Default constraints provided by the parent tech group:
essentials:
parent:
constraints:
energy_con: true
energy_prod: true
costs: {}
Required constraints, allowed constraints, and allowed costs:
required_constraints: []
allowed_constraints:
 carrier_ratios
 energy_cap_equals
 energy_cap_equals_systemwide
 energy_cap_max
 energy_cap_max_systemwide
 energy_cap_min
 energy_cap_min_use
 energy_cap_per_unit
 energy_cap_scale
 energy_con
 energy_eff
 energy_prod
 energy_ramping
 export_cap
 export_carrier
 lifetime
 units_equals
 units_equals_systemwide
 units_max
 units_max_systemwide
 units_min
allowed_costs:
 depreciation_rate
 energy_cap
 export
 interest_rate
 om_annual
 om_annual_investment_fraction
 om_con
 om_prod
 purchase
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